- Formal communication flows through offical channels and goes through hierarchy. Any written communication falls under this category. e.g a work-order, a promotion letter etc
- Informal communication occurs within informal groups- social groups generated due to affinity, similar interests etc. Informal communication is a word-of-mouth communication in which information passed through people. Rumour is one kind of informal communication. It is also called "grapevine"
Directions of Formal communication Flow
Based on the direction of flow, communication can be classified into following four categories.
- Downward communication- in which a higher up communicates to his/her subordinates. e.g Principal to HOD
- Upward communication - in which a subordinate communicates with a higher up e.g. HOD sends a report to Dean/Principal
- Horizontal communication- in which employees of equal standing and grade communicate with each other. e.g. Academic dean communicates with Dean- Student welfare
- External Communication - in which enterprise or organization communicates with an outside agency e.g. college communicates with university,